|Subject: Constitution for Iraq
Date: Fri, 17 Oct 2003 10:07:00 -0700
From: Paul Niquette
Office of the Spokesman for the
Dear Kofi Annan,
Permit me to challenge U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell's assertion that it will take six months to draft a constitution for Iraq.
Eager to hasten solutions for Iraqis and to assure the earliest possible withdrawal of American troops, I took six hours (not six months) to write a constitution for Iraq, which is published in full at...
...and I have notified Colin Powell that it is available for immediate licensing at a nominal fee. No reply has been received so far.
Please do not dismiss this proposal
as insincere, for I have diligently
We the people of Iraq, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United Provinces of Iraq.
The Country of Iraq comprises 18 provinces as follows: Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, and Wasit.
Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of Iraq, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
The powers not delegated to the government of Iraq by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the provinces, are reserved to the provinces respectively, or to the people.
The right of citizens of Iraq to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the government of Iraq or by any province on account of sex.
The right of citizens of Iraq to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the government of Iraq or any province by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
The right of citizens of Iraq, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by Iraq or any province on account of age.
Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several provinces, and the electors in each province shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the province legislature.
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United Provinces, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that province in which he or she shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several provinces which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United Provinces, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each province shall have at least one Representative.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any province, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3. The Senate of the Iraq shall be composed of two Senators from each province, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the province legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any province in the Senate, the executive authority of such province shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any province may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any province, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the Iraq and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that province for which he or she shall be chosen.
The Vice President of Iraq shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he or she shall exercise the office of President of Iraq.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of Iraq is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United Provinces: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each province by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of Iraq. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he or she was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United Provinces, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United Provinces, shall be a member of either House during his or her continuance in office.
Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.
Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of Iraq; if he or she approve he or she shall sign it, but if not he or she shall return it, with his or her objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he or she had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of Iraq; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of Iraq; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout Iraq;
To borrow money on the credit of Iraq;
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several provinces, and with the Indian tribes;
To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout Iraq;
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of Iraq;
To establish post offices and post roads;
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
To provide and maintain a navy;
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of Iraq, reserving to the provinces respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding 30 kilometers square) as may, by cession of particular provinces, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of Iraq.
The District constituting the seat of government of Iraq shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a province, but in no event more than the least populous province; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the provinces, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
To exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the province in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;--And
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of Iraq, or in any department or officer thereof.
To lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source
derived, without apportionment among the
Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the provinces now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any province.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one province over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one province, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.
No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
No title of nobility shall be granted by Iraq: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign province.
Section 10. No province shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
No province shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any province on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of Iraq; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
No province shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another province, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
The powers not delegated to the United Provinces of Iraq by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the provinces, are reserved to the provinces respectively, or to the people.
The right of citizens of Iraq to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the government of Iraq or by any province on account of sex.
The right of citizens of Iraq to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by Iraq or any province by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
The right of citizens of Iraq, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by Iraq or any province on account of age.
Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of Iraq. He or she shall hold his or her office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:
Each province shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the Province may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under Iraq, shall be appointed an elector.
The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same province with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of Iraq, directed to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of Iraq.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout Iraq.
The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of
the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President
elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen
before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President
elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall
act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of Iraq, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within Iraq.
In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his or her death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated times, receive for his or her services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he or she shall have been elected, and he or she shall not receive within that period any other emolument from Iraq, or any of them.
Before he or she enter on the execution of his or her office, he or she shall take the following oath or affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of Iraq, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of Iraq."
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.
Section 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of Iraq, and of the militia of the several provinces, when called into the actual service of Iraq; he or she may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he or she shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against Iraq, except in cases of impeachment.
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
He or she shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he or she shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of Iraq, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.
Section 3. He or she shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he or she shall judge necessary and expedient; he or she may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he or she may adjourn them to such time as he or she shall think proper; he or she shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he or she shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of Iraq.
Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of Iraq, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Section 1. The judicial power of Iraq, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of Iraq, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to which Iraq shall be a party;--to controversies between two or more provinces;--between a province and citizens of another province;--between citizens of different provinces;--between citizens of the same province claiming lands under grants of different provinces, and between a province, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
The judicial power of Iraq shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of provinces by citizens of another province, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the province and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his or her favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his or her defense.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dinars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of Iraq, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a province shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the province where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any province, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Section 3. Treason against Iraq, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each province to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other province. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Section 2. The citizens of each province shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several provinces.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the Provinces of Iraq, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
All persons born or naturalized in Iraq, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of Iraq and of the province wherein they reside. No province shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of Iraq; nor shall any province deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, in Iraq, or in any province, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of Iraq, or as a member of any province legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any province, to support the Constitution of Iraq, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of Iraq, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither Iraq nor any province shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against Iraq; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free province, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
A person charged in any province with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another province, shall on demand of the executive authority of the province from which he or she fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the province having jurisdiction of the crime.
No person held to service or labor in one province, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.
Section 3. New provinces may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new provinces shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other province; nor any province be formed by the junction of two or more provinces, or parts of provinces, without the consent of the legislatures of the provinces concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to Iraq; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United Provinces, or of any particular province.
Section 4. Iraq shall guarantee to every province in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several provinces, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several provinces, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no province, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against Iraq under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the laws of Iraq which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of Iraq, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every province shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any Province to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several province legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of Iraq and of the several provinces, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United Provinces.
The ratification of the conventions of nine provinces, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the provinces so ratifying the same.